Project examples - Materials

Process development for additive multi-material fabrication

© Fraunhofer IWU
  • extension of the known laser-beam-melting-process with a paste-extrusion-process
  • form a cavity with laser beam melting, from which the powder is being removed
  • bring the paste in this cavity
  • thermally debind the paste and sinter or melt the powder content of the paste
  • repeat this process until the final part is finished
  • avoid intermixing and contamination of starting material: powder and paste
  • it is possible to insert more than one more material

Possible Applications:

tooling: insert highly thermally conductive components (copper-inserts) in filigree tool domains, which can’t be provided with a cooling channel

integration of functions: e.g. integration of conducting paths incl. isolation, insert directly manufactured sensors/actuators, magnetic materials, etc.


strategic research / AGENT-3D_ProAMM


 ISAM 2017 (poster), Rapid.Tech 2017 (talk)




Fraunhofer IWU, Martin Jaretzki,, +49 351 4772 2159

Comparison of 3DP and Metal Injection Molding (MIM)

© Fraunhofer IFAM

Printing of demonstrators from 17-4 PH and Ferro-Titanit®

Comparison of achieved material properties with properties of MIM parts


IGF project, beginning October 2017


Wieland, Sandra; Petzoldt, Frank: Binder Jet 3D-Printing for Metal Additive Manufacturing: Applications and Innovative Approaches. DKG 93 (2016) No. 10

Isaza, Juan F.; Aumund-Kopp, Claus; Wieland, Sandra; Petzoldt, Frank; Bauschulte, Mathis; Godlinski,  Dirk: New materials and applications by 3D-Printing for innovative approaches. Proceedings of EURO PM 2015, Reims, France. ISBN: 978-1-899072-47-7


Sandra Wieland,

Claus Aumund-Kopp,

µForm – Additive manufacturing of form electrodes made of cemented carbide (WC/Co)

© Fraunhofer IPK


EDM of materials which are difficult to machine

Additive manufacturing with cemented carbide

Focus areas

Material-analysis and optimization of the manufacturing parameters Selective Laser Melting

Additive manufacturing of individualized tool-electrodes with integrated irrigation channels and high aspect ratios

Designing of the SLM and EDM process


Process chain for manufacturing of electrodes

Improvement of process conditions at EDM:

Higher ablation rate, less wear


FEMRO, µForm


E. Uhlmann, A. Bergmann, W. Gridin: Investigation on Additive Manufacturing of Tungsten Carbide-cobalt by Selective Laser Melting. In: Procedia CIRP, Vol. 35, Page 8-15, 2015



André Bergmann,, +49 (0)30 / 3 90 06-107



Multimaterial processing via additive manufacturing - MultiBeAM

© Fraunhofer IWS

The complex market conditions in the high-technology sector  require a constant performance increase and better efficiency at the same time.

A product improvement can be realized through the intelligent use of customized  high efficiency materials or constructive steps.

The component parts have to meet locally differing requirements regarding to resistance, density, thermal operational capability, oxidation and wear behavior. This requires partially very different materials in one component.

With conventional production processes multi-material components can only be made through attachment of different single components. This results in high production costs, high system weight and short life.

The production of a huge amount of applications is not possible with conventional production processes, because the integrative component requires a multi-material use.


Riede, M.: Laserbasierte Herstellung von Metall-Faserverbund-Verbindungen: IWS Jahresbericht 2014, S. 46‑47


Agend 3D - MultiBeAM



Prof. Dr. Frank Brückner,, +4935183391-3452,
Dr. Elena López,, +4935183391-3296


Process development for additive multi-material fabrication

© Fraunhofer IWM

Selective laser sintering (SLS) produces components with the best material properties from all the 3D-printing technologies for polymers.

To increase the range of available materials in the Project „ Lasergestützter Aufbau von kundenindividueller Fußbekleidung (LAuF)“ the partners develop new types of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU).

The materials are tested at the Fraunhofer IWM regarding their mechanical and tribological properties. Together with the partners parametric studies are conducted and modes of failure are identified under tribological and fatigue loading.

The results aim at making orthopedic products by 3D-printing.


LAuF supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research under grant (03XP0010A-F)


Dr. Jörg Lienhard,, +49 761 5142 339

Printable Biomaterials

© Fraunhofer IGB

The Fraunhofer IGB provides R&D in the field of hydrogels and particle formulations for use in printing systems.


We provide chemically modified biopolymers from the natural tissue matrix such as collagen, gelatin, and glycosaminoglycanes like hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate or heparin with defined degrees of modification and quality. By addition of cross-linkable functions and non-reactive functions we can control the viscoelastic behavior of the materials.

We develop tailored material formulations for various automated deposition techniques such as inkjet, robotic dispensing, electro spinning, as well as conventional pipetting in the microliter or nanoliter range.

Non-cytotoxic materials:

Furthermore we develop new materials for cytocompatible coatings and processes: E.g. toner particles  with functionalized surfaces; or functional poly(ethyleneglycols) for inkjet printing.

If you aim to print protein solutions, if you plan to condition bio-based matrices for automation of  tissue engineering challenges, or if you are looking for cytocompatible material formulations, please contact us.


Hoch, E., et al. "Chemical tailoring of gelatin to adjust its chemical and physical properties for functional bioprinting." Journal of Materials Chemistry B 1(41): 5675-5685, 2013.

Engelhardt, S., et al. "Fabrication of 2D protein microstructures and 3D polymer–protein hybrid microstructures by two-photon polymerization." Biofabrication 3: 025003, 2011.

Huber, B., et al. (2016). "Blood-Vessel Mimicking Structures by Stereolithographic Fabrication of Small Porous Tubes Using Cytocompatible Polyacrylate Elastomers, Biofunctionalization and Endothelialization." Journal of Functional Biomaterials 7(2): 11.

Southan, A., et al. "Side chain thiol-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) by post-polymerization modification of hydroxyl groups: synthesis, crosslinking and inkjet printing." Polymer Chemistry 5(18): 5350-5359, 2014.


BioRap (FhG), Artivasc-EU (EU), Protoprint (VW-Stiftung), Theranostische Implantate (FhG)



Dr. Achim Weber, 0711 970-4022,

Design of Functional Materials – exemplified by pantographic structuring

Functional materials enable the selective fulfillment of increased material requirements.

© Fraunhofer EMI

Pantographic materials are modeled as Functional Materials, additively manufactured and tested.

The flexibility and freedom of Additive Manufacturing offers new potential for the structuring and design of Functional Materials.

The incremental material generation (typical for additive manufacturing) enables the individual manipulation of material characteristics on sub-scales.

This allows for the selective influence of metallurgy in metals along with the generation of geometric, mechanical, and material-scientific characteristics in several scale levels.

The pantographically structured materials present an enormous potential concerning increased elasticity and elongation at break – up to 10x higher as the raw material.

Continuative application potentials for technical solutions are analyzed.



Spagnuolo, M., Pfaff, A., et al. „Qualitative pivot damage analysis in aluminum printed pantographic sheets: numerics and experiments”, Mechanics Research Communications, 2017


Aron Pfaff,, +49 761 2714 522

Heat treatment strategies for LBM

© Fraunhofer IGCV

Laser melting leads to a rapid solidification, individual melt lines are recognizable. Different heat treatment parameters result from different dissolution and precipitation behavior

Within the framework of the project, AlSi10Mg and 17-4PH specimens are produced by laser beam melting, heat-treated and finally analyzed by materials science.

The interactions between laser beam melting, heat treatment and resulting material properties are demonstrated by systematic experimental planning.

On the basis of this scientific approach, specific heat treatment rules for laser beam fused components are derived from AlSi10Mg and 17-4PH, which is a direct industrial benefit.


Heat treatment strategies for the LBM


Dr.-Ing. Georg Schlick,, +49 821 90678-179

Additive production of artificial tissue

© Fraunhofer IGB

The Fraunhofer IGB provides formulation of biomaterials based on hydrogels of the natural tissue matrix for bioprinting applications.

We develop sophisticated compositions of hydrogels which mimic the matrix of specific tissues and can be applied in printing processes.

We use for example cross-linkable gelatin, hyaluronic acid, and chondroitin sulphate, inorganic fillers like hydroxy apatite, and collagen to generate tailored 3D environments for tissue specific cells such as chondrocytes, adipocytes, endothelial cells,  as well as for support of differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

We adapt the viscoelastic properties of matrices to liquid handling and characterize the biological effects on cells.

We support your developments of artifical tissue systems, please contact us.


DynaImplant (FhG), Artivasc-EU


A. Wenz et al. Hydroxyapatite-modified gelatin bioinks for bone bioprinting. BioNanoMaterials. 17: 179, 2016.

B. Huber et al., Methacrylated gelatin and mature adipocytes are promising components for adipose tissue engineering. J Biomater Appl;30(6):699-710., 2016.
S. Stier et al. Development of ECM-mimicking hydrogel bioinks and fabrication of zonal cartilage equivalents by dispensing technology, 2017 -  Manuscript in Preparation



EP2621713 B1


Dr. Achim Weber, 0711 970-4022,

Platinum-Rhodium Alloy

© Fraunhofer IGCV

Special materials in aerospace are mandatory

Additive manufacturing offers new potential for the implementation of functionally optimized designs

Combustion chamber of Pt-Rh 80-20

Procedure: Powder selection and qualification, parameter development for the application of a Pt alloy for AM, production of a demonstrator component, component hot test

Successful performance of a hot test of the AM combustion chamber at Airbus in Lampoldshausen

Increased efficiency and performance

Transfer to other Pt alloys


Construction of a platinum-rhodium combustion chamber


F. Riß, D. Jaschik: Einsatz der Additiven Fertigung zur Herstellung von Brennkammern und Düsen aus Edelmetallen für Satellitentriebwerke, Rapid.Tech, 2015.


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christian Seidel,, +49 821 90678-127

Process development for additive multi-material fabrication: Electro Beam Melting

© Fraunhofer IFAM

Verification of processability of TiAl alloy (RNT650) by EBM

The work packages of Fraunhofer IFAM comprise the areas of powder, process development and part manufacturing

Important results include:

Development of powder specifications

Process window for processing of RNT650 by means of EBM

Successful production of > 30 demonstrators


TiAl Charger


G. Baudana, S. Biamino, B. Klöden, A. Kirchner, T. Weißgärber, B. Kieback, D. Ugues, P. Fino, C. Badini, Electron beam melting of Ti-48Al-2Nb-0.7Cr-0.3Si: feasibility investigation, Intermetallics, Vol. 73, 2016, 43-49


Dr. Burghardt Klöden,